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Handwriting Without Tearms

Research Review References

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Armitage, D., & Ratzlaff, H. (1985). The non-correlation of printing and writing skills. Journal of Educational Research, 78, (3), 174-177.

Asher, A. (2006). Handwriting Instruction in Elementary Schools. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 60, 461-471.

Berninger, V.W., Graham, S., & Weintraub, N. (1998). The relationship between handwriting style and speed and legibility. The Journal of Educational Research, 91, 290-296.

Berninger, V.W., Vaughn, K.B., Abbott, R., Abbott, S., Rogan, L., Brooks, A., Reed, E., & Graham, S. (1997). Treatment of handwriting problems in beginning writers: Transfer from handwriting to composition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 652-666.

Case-Smith, J. (2002). Effectiveness of school-based occupational therapy intervention on handwriting. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 56, 17-25.

Clark-Wentz, J. (1997). Improving students' handwriting. OT Practice, 2 (10), 29-33.

Daly, C., Kelley, G.T., & Krauss, A. (2003). Relationship between visual motor integration and handwriting skills of children in kindergarten: a modified replication studyAmerican Journal of Occupational Therapy 57, 459-462.

ERIC Development Team (1997). Six Questions educators should ask before choosing a handwriting program. ERIC Digest [ED 409 589].

Feder, K.P., & Majnemer, A. (2007). Handwriting development, competency, and intervention. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49, 312-317.

Gesell, A. (1940). The First Five Years of Life: A Guide to the Study of the Preschool Child. New York: Harper and Row.

Graham, S., Harris, K.R., Mason, L., Fink-Chorzempa, B., Moran, S., & Saddler, B. (2007). How do primary grade teachers teach handwriting? A national survey. Reading and Writing.

Graham, S. & Harris, K.R., (2005). Improving the writing performance of young struggling writers. The Journal of Special Education, 39, 19-33.

Graham, S., Harris, K.R., & Fink, B. (2000a). Extra handwriting instruction: prevent writing difficulties right from the start. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33, 88-92.

Graham, S., Harris, K.R., & Fink, B. (2000b). Is handwriting casually related to learning to write? Treatment of handwriting problems in beginning writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 620-633.

Graham, S. (1993). Are slanted manuscript alphabets superior to the traditional manuscript alphabet? Childhood Education, 71, 91-95.

Graham, S. (1992). Issues in handwriting instruction. Focus on Exceptional Children, 25, 1-15.

Guy, J.M. (2003). Effect of proprioceptive input combined with Handwriting Without Tears on the handwriting of children with learning disabilities. Master's thesis. Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Jones, D., & Christensen, C. (1999). Relationship between automaticity in handwriting and students' ability to generate written text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 44-49.

Kiss, D. (2007). Handwriting Consultation in Elementary Schools. OT Practice, 12 (14), 11-14.

Malloy-Miller, T., Polatajko, H., & Ansett, B. (1995). Handwriting error patterns of children with mild motor difficulties. Canadian Occupational Therapy Journal, 62, 258-267.

Marr, D., Cermack, S.A., Cohn, E.S, & Henderson, A. (2003). Fine motor activities in Head Start and Kindergarten classroomsAmerican Journal of Occupational Therapy 57, 550-557.

McHale, K., & Cermack, S.A. (1992) Fine Motor activities in elementary school: preliminary findings and provisional implications for children with fine motor problems. American Journal of Occupational Therapy , 46, 898-903.

Medwell, J., Wray, D. (2007). Handwriting: what do we know and what do we need to know? Literacy, (42), 10-15.

NAEYC. 1996. NAEYC position statement: Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age eight. Washington DC: 

Owens, L.L. (2004). The effects of the Handwriting Without Tears program on the handwriting of students in inclusion classrooms. Master's thesis. Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Pontello, K.M. (1999). The effectiveness of a structured handwriting program. Unpublished master's thesis. Lakehead University, Ontario, Canada.

Rosenblum, S., Goldstand, S., & Parush, S. (2006). Relationships among biomechanical ergonomic factors, handwriting product quality, handwriting efficiency, and computerized handwriting process measures in children with and without handwriting difficulties. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 60, 28-39.

Sheffield, B. (1996). Handwriting: a neglected cornerstone of literacy. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 21-35.

Smith-Zuzovsky, N., & Exner, C.E. (2004). The effect of seated positioning quality on typical 6-and 7-year-old children's object manipulation skills. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 58, 380-388.

Ste-Marie, D.M., Clark, S.E., Findlay, L.C., & Latimer, A.E. (2004). High levels of contextual interference enhance handwriting skill acquisition. Journal of Motor Behavior, 36, 115-127.

Weinraub, D.L. (1999). The effects of the use of broken crayon upon grasp development in conjunction with occupational therapy. Unpublished masters thesis. Touro College, Far Rockaway, NY.